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They consist of five yellow petals that are curled inward, five stamens , and one pistil. The fruits, or schizocarps , are oval and flat, with narrow wings and short, spreading styles.
Despite the slight morphological differences between the two, wild parsnip is the same taxon as the cultivated version, and the two readily cross-pollinate.
Like carrots, parsnips are native to Eurasia and have been eaten there since ancient times. Zohary and Hopf note that the archaeological evidence for the cultivation of the parsnip is "still rather limited", and that Greek and Roman literary sources are a major source about its early use.
In Europe, the vegetable was used as a source of sugar before cane and beet sugars were available. This plant was introduced to North America simultaneously by the French colonists in Canada and the British in the Thirteen Colonies for use as a root vegetable, but in the midth century, it was replaced as the main source of starch by the potato and consequently was less widely cultivated.
He back-crossed cultivated plants to wild stock, aiming to demonstrate how native plants could be improved by selective breeding.
This experiment was so successful, 'Student' became the major variety in cultivation in the late 19th century.
Pastinaca sativa was first officially described by Carolus Linnaeus in his work Species Plantarum. Several species from other genera Anethum , Elaphoboscum , Peucedanum , Selinum are likewise synonymous with the name Pastinaca sativa.
Like most plants of agricultural importance, several subspecies and varieties of P. In Eurasia, some authorities distinguish between cultivated and wild versions of parsnips by using subspecies P.
In Europe, various subspecies have been named based on characteristics such as the hairiness of the leaves, the extent to which the stems are angled or rounded, and the size and shape of the terminal umbel.
Parsnips resemble carrots and can be used in similar ways, but they have a sweeter taste, especially when cooked.
When used in stews , soups , and casseroles , they give a rich flavor. Roast parsnip is considered an essential part of Christmas dinner in some parts of the English-speaking world and frequently features in the traditional Sunday roast.
They can be made into a wine with a taste similar to Madeira. In Roman times, parsnips were believed to be an aphrodisiac.
Instead, they are fed to pigs, particularly those bred to make Parma ham. A typical g parsnip contains 75 kcal kJ of energy.
Since most of the vitamins and minerals are found close to the skin, many will be lost unless the root is finely peeled or cooked whole.
During frosty weather, part of the starch is converted to sugar and the root tastes sweeter. The consumption of parsnips has potential health benefits.
They contain antioxidants such as falcarinol , falcarindiol , panaxydiol, and methyl-falcarindiol, which may potentially have anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties.
The high fiber content of parsnips may help prevent constipation and reduce blood cholesterol levels. The etymology of the generic name Pastinaca is not known with certainty, but is probably derived from either the Latin word pastino , meaning "to prepare the ground for planting of the vine" or pastus , meaning "food".
The specific epithet sativa means "sown". While folk etymology sometimes assumes the name is a mix of parsley and turnip , it actually comes from Middle English pasnepe , alteration influenced by nep , turnip of Old French pasnaie now panais from Latin pastinum , a kind of fork.
The word's ending was changed to -nip by analogy with turnip because it was mistakenly assumed to be a kind of turnip.
The wild parsnip from which the modern cultivated varieties were derived is a plant of dry rough grassland and waste places, particularly on chalk and limestone soils.
Sandy and loamy soils are preferable to silt, clay, and stony ground; the latter produces short, forked roots. Parsnip seed significantly deteriorates in viability if stored for long.
Seeds are usually planted in early spring, as soon as the ground can be worked to a fine tilth , in the position where the plants are to grow.
The growing plants are thinned and kept weed-free. Harvesting begins in late fall after the first frost , and continues through winter.
The rows can be covered with straw to enable the crop to be lifted during frosty weather. Parsnip leaves are sometimes tunnelled by the larvae of the celery fly Euleia heraclei.
Irregular, pale brown passages can be seen between the upper and lower surfaces of the leaves. The effects are most serious on young plants, as whole leaves may shrivel and die.
Treatment is by removing affected leaflets or whole leaves, or by chemical means. The crop can be attacked by larvae of the carrot fly Chamaepsila rosae.
This pest feeds on the outer layers of the root, burrowing its way inside later in the season. Seedlings may be killed while larger roots are spoiled.
The damage done provides a point of entry for fungal rots and canker. The fly is attracted by the smell of bruised tissue. Parsnip is used as a food plant by the larvae of some lepidopteran species, including the parsnip swallowtail Papilio polyxenes , the common swift moth Korscheltellus lupulina , the garden dart moth Euxoa nigricans , and the ghost moth Hepialus humuli.
Parsnip canker is a serious disease of this crop. Black or orange-brown patches occur around the crown and shoulders of the root accompanied by cracking and hardening of the flesh.
It is more likely to occur when seed is sown into cold, wet soil, the pH of the soil is too low, or the roots have already been damaged by carrot fly larvae.
In Europe, Mycocentrospora acerina has been found to cause a black rot that kills the plant early. A white or buff -colored mold grows on the surface.
The pathogen is most common in temperate and subtropical regions that have a cool wet season. Violet root rot caused by the fungus Helicobasidium purpureum sometimes affects the roots, covering them with a purplish mat to which soil particles adhere.
The leaves become distorted and discolored and the mycelium can spread through the soil between plants. Some weeds can harbour this fungus and it is more prevalent in wet, acid conditions.
Infestation by this causes results in yellowing of the leaf and loss of foliage. Moderate temperatures and high humidity favor the development of the disease.
Several viruses are known to infect the plant, including seed-borne strawberry latent ringspot virus , parsnip yellow fleck virus , parsnip leafcurl virus , parsnip mosaic potyvirus , and potyvirus celery mosaic virus.
The latter causes clearing or yellowing of the areas of the leaf immediately beside the veins, the appearance of ochre mosaic spots, and crinkling of the leaves in infected plants.
The shoots and leaves of parsnip must be handled with care, as its sap contains furanocoumarins , phototoxic chemicals that cause blisters on the skin when it is exposed to sunlight, a condition known as phytophotodermatitis.
Symptoms include redness, burning, and blisters; afflicted areas can remain sensitive and discolored for up to two years. The problem is most likely to occur on a sunny day when gathering foliage or pulling up old plants that have gone to seed.
The symptoms have mostly been mild to moderate. The toxic properties of parsnip extracts are resistant to heating, and to periods of storage lasting several months.
Toxic symptoms can also affect livestock and poultry in parts of their bodies where their skin is exposed.
The parsnip is native to Eurasia. However, its popularity as a cultivated plant has led to the plant being spread beyond its native range, and wild populations have become established in other parts of the world.
Scattered population can be found throughout North America. The plant can form dense stands which outcompete native species, and is especially common in abandoned yards, farmland, and along roadsides and other disturbed environments.
The increasing abundance of this plant is a concern particularly due to the plant's toxicity and increasing abundance in populated areas such as parks.
Control is often carried out via chemical means, with glyphosate-containing herbicides considered to be effective.
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